In terms of current industrial requirements, the most interesting subject to the writer is the treating for bio-implant items and “repairs” to components that are inserted into the human body.

Figure 1 is simply an illustration of the human skeleton, which supports all of the components that allows the human body to manipulate itself.

While this sketch shows the skeleton framework, it is recognized that it does not show all of the critical joints that can suffer from abrasion during a normal day’s duties. It is indicative of areas of the human body skeleton that can be successfully replaced by the introduction of nonreactive components. This includes replacement of:

  • Rib cage
  • Jaw and skull
  • Hip
  • Lower-limb joint
  • Lower-limb bone
  • Finger joint
  • Arm and shoulder bone structures
  • Spinal joints replacement

The other concern and consideration are that whatever material is used, it must be nonreactive to the human condition.

Having said that, and switching now to the unit known as the “pacemaker,” the power battery is generally housed inside a titanium-based alloy. The pacemaker itself is extraordinarily small.

Generally, titanium-based alloys are most frequently used in load-bearing joint replacement within the skeleton frame. Titanium began to become a key material of the jet age that was developing and emerging 70-75 years ago. It was found predominantly in the aviation industry and used in jet turbine engines.