Over the years, the following information has proven to be a quick reference guide to the effects of various alloying elements. Here we present some of the purposes (Table 1) and effects (Tables 2-4) of various alloying elements.


Notes (for Table 4):

1.    Blank spaces do not necessarily indicate “no effect” and may indicate the effects are complex and interdependent on other factors such as
       a.    Interactions with other elements
       b.    Practices and circumstances when reheating for hot working (e.g. reheat temperature, furnace atmosphere, soak times)
       c.    In-process or finishing heat treatments (e.g. annealing, quench & temper)

2.    If the indication is INC or DEC this does not necessarily mean that the element produced the indicated effect. Factors a-c can mitigate or change the element effects.


1.    "Alloy Element Effects," white paper