What are the methods available for the deposition of a thin-film hard coating for such surface coatings as titanium nitride, titanium carbonitride and titanium aluminum nitride?

The two principle deposition methods are Chemical Vapor Deposition (CVD) and Physical Vapor Deposition (PVD).

Chemical Vapor Deposition:
CVD is usually a high-temperature process that will produce chemically developed coatings from a prepared gaseous mixture. The substrate material (material being coated) will act as a catalyst during the reaction process at temperature. The process temperature ranges from 1380°F (750°C) up to 1970°F (1060°C).

Physical Vapor Deposition:
PVD is accomplished by the creation of a metal vapor, which is a reactive gas to deposit a hard coat onto the substrate surface being treated. This method of deposition has created the ability to accomplish the deposition at low temperatures ranging from 480°F (250°C) up to 1100°F (600°C).

Watch for my next submission to learn about the delivery methods of both coating techniques.