There are four grounds for filing non-fee-based petitions:

1. An applicant’s advanced age (over 65 or poor health)
2. The invention will improve the environment
3. The invention will contribute to the development or conservation of energy
4. The invention will contribute to countering terrorism

There are also six grounds filing fee-based petitions:

1. Prospective manufacture will not manufacture the invention without patent (must do a search)
2. Actual infringement is occurring
3. The invention relates to the safety of research in the field of recombinant DNA
4. The invention relates to HIV/AIDS or cancer
5. The invention relates to superconductivity
6. The invention relates to biotechnology for a company that is a small entity