Nearly four years since the Section 232 tariffs on aluminum took effect, the U.S. beverage industry alone has paid more than $1.4 billion in tariffs, according to the Beer Institute.

New research shows that the tariffs have driven up the price of aluminum because rolling mills and smelters are including the tariffs in their prices, regardless of whether the metal is subject to Section 232 tariffs. That means U.S. beer and beverage companies are being charged a higher price for the metal, driving up the cost of doing business in the U.S. and making consumer goods more expensive.