What if you plugged an induction heating system into a wall outlet, flipped the “on” switch, and not only produced a 100% output efficiency but amplified the output by more than double the input?

Well, that is now possible with new patent-pending technology from Kainos Systems called “Pulse Charging Discharging Succession,” or PCDS. Kainos Systems, known for manufacturing RF amplifier systems, has developed PCDS technology to truly amplify DC input power to AC output power through an induction load. This technology is perfect for induction heating applications since the solenoid coils used in heating up workpieces are induction loads.


Induction Heating

Induction heating works by transmitting alternating current (AC) through a solenoid or coil to produce eddy currents in ferromagnetic or paramagnetic materials for the purpose of heating up or melting the workpiece. Even though inducting heating provides a “green alternative” with environmental contributions, large amounts of electrical power are required.

Induction heating applications sometimes require hooking up to sources from 220 VAC single-phase sources to 460 VAC three-phase sources. Kainos Systems’ PCDS system can reduce the power-source size and capacity through using its electrical system, which truly amplifies power.

PCDS technology is an electronics system that produces a continuous high-power alternating magnetic field through an induction load using multiple capacitors discharging in succession into that inductive load. While discharging is happening, a DC (battery or AC/DC converter) source recharges the capacitors in succession with low duty-cycle pulses.

Kainos Systems has already proven out this technology with its first low-powered lab demonstration module shown in Fig. 2. An AC-to-DC converter RSP-100-48 from Mean Well is used as the DC source that connects the PCDS module. A 63.5-mm-diameter and 140-mm-high solenoid coil with 95 turns of 16-gauge wire is wrapped around an insulating pipe to create a 555.8 µH
inductance load connected to the PCDS module.

With the AC/DC converter pulling 120 VAC, it produced 48 VDC with an average current of 2.5 amps. This converter produced 122.5 W
of input power into the module. Using a small pickoff coil inside the solenoid, the alternating current detected was 22 amps with 38 V across the solenoid. This produces an output power of 836 W with a magnetic field alternating at 432 Hz frequency. The amplification was by a factor 6.82, or 8.34 dB.

The AC-to-DC converter that produced the 48 VDC into the PCDS system could be powered by a 48-V battery and produce the same results. The law of conservation of energy still applies. The input energy into the PCDS is the same as the energy out. The PCDS system’s performance changes with different coil sizes and DC sources. The PCDS is a single-frequency system that is designed and tuned to the inductance of the load and power of the DC source.



James Burke joined Editor Reed Miller for a podcast to further discuss PCDS technology.

Check it out here:



PCDS Applications

The PCDS will have multiple induction heating applications. They range from small induction power heating (jewelry forming, automotive component annealing, small metal forging and tankless electric hot water heaters) to large induction power heating (smelting furnace and large billet heating).

Figure 3 shows a common internal layout of a residential-capacity 27-kW tankless electric water heater and PCDS integration water heater. The common operations of a tankless water heater involve cold-water flows into the inlet pipe through a flow sensor and temperature sensors. Then the cold water flows through three 1.5-inch-diameter copper pipes with electric resistive heater elements mounted to each pipe. Water will be increased to a maximum temperature of 140°F and flows to the outlet. The three common resistive heaters together usually pull 113 amps of current at 240 VAC at 60 Hz. This common electric water heater requires three 40-amp breakers to operate.

PCDS integration will replace the three resistive heaters with roughly 32 meters of 8-gauge wire wrapped around the 1.5-inch-diameter pipes electrically connected in series to create one large induction solenoid. The large solenoid is connected to the PCDS electronics. Single-phase 120 VAC power from a wall outlet will be fed into a VI-ARMB-C2N AC-to-DC converter from VICOR to provide 375 VDC at 3 amps into the PCDS electronics mounted inside the water heater.

The solenoid coil will produce 20.45 kW, or 69.78 kBTU/hour, of output power with alternating frequency of 174 Hz. The 174 Hz frequency provides sufficient skin depth to fully heat the 1.5-inch copper pipes, which will increase the copper pipes’ temperature and thereby increase water temperature from 10°C, or 50°F, (usually temperature from an underground well) to 60°C, or 147°F, in 3.8 seconds. The power amplification will increase by approximately a factor of 95, or 19.77 dB.

The PCDS system can integrate into large applications like a power-supply system to a smelter induction furnace or integrate into the electronics inside the cabinet of a single-stage billet-heating system. We are including projections of the performance parameters of a single-stage induction billet-heating system that through-heats 100-mm-diameter x 400-mm-long carbon-steel billets.

These systems usually require a 480 VAC three-phase voltage pulling hundreds of amps of current from a commercial facility. Integrating the PCDS system into an induction billet heating furnace system can be reduced to a single-phase power source and save average utility costs in operations. Figure 4 shows a PCDS integration into a one-stage induction billet furnace system that heats 100-mm-diameter and 400-mm-long carbon-steel billet rods.

Using online resources for calculating induction heating of steel materials, the amount of power needed to through-heat a steel billet as the workpiece to 1260°C for forging is 59 kW with a frequency of 400 Hz. The 480 VAC three-phase power supply would need to pull roughly 431 amps from a facility.

The PCDS integration into the electronics inside the cabinet would be designed and tuned to the existing helical coil inside the system. The PCDS integrated billet heater would only need 220 VAC single power from the facility connected to a CSP-3000-400 AC/DC converter module from Mean Well to provide the 400 VDC.

The PCDS induction billet heater would provide output power of 59.18 kW with 380 V across the helical coil in the billet system at 400 Hz frequency but only pull 3.5 amps average input current. This will allow the chosen power source to provide an average input power of 1.4 kW. This is true amplification by a factor of 44, or 16.5 dB.



The cost savings, portability and reduction in average input power are the major contributions of PCDS technology from Kainos Systems. These contributions can impact our current U.S. economy, in which our desire is to revitalize industry with lower operating costs to increase profits. By relying less on fossil fuels to produce induction heating, PCDS technology also has a global impact on the environment. Kainos Systems is looking to license this technology or develop equipment for companies that are interested.


For more information:  Contact James E. Burke, principal, Kainos Systems, LLC.; P.O. Box 1774, Sparta, N.J.; e-mail: info@kainosys.net; web: www.kainossys.net.