Scientists from the University of Southern California (USC) claim to have developed an inexpensive, safe redox flow battery. Iron sulfate – a cheap waste product of the steel industry – is utilized along with anthraquinone disulfonic acid (AQDS) organic material, which is already used to improve the stability and solubility of redox flow batteries. It is believed that, at scale, electricity will be half the cost of more-toxic vanadium batteries.

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