Work is being done on how to make steel more cleanly. It’s too difficult to explain the details, but you should check out what the Austrians are calling H2Future. A polymer electrolyte membrane has been constructed at voestalpine’s mill in Austria.

Tata Steel has developed a green process of their own called Hlsarna, which sounds like an Ikea product because the work is being done in the Netherlands. It involves a reactor in which iron ore is injected at the top. The ore is liquefied in a high-temperature cyclone and drips to the bottom of the reactor where powder coal is injected.