The KoleneR QPQsm process involves a secondary polishing operation followed by re-oxidation. This results in a lustrous black finish with a low surface RMS. In independent tests on induction hardened, medium carbon steel, the QPQ-treated parts continued to pass after 336 hours of exposure. Failure is defined in ASTM B 117 as greater than 10% red rust on the surface. Applications include shock-absorber piston rods, carburetor parts, engine valves, video recorder components, camera parts, automotive drive train components, and components used in hydraulic systems.