Seven new industrial-size models have been added to the company's UL-listed Scale-Blaster™ line of electronic descalers. These new models handle standard diameters of non-steel pipe from 12 to 40 in. (305 to 1,016 mm) and of steel pipe from 4 to 26 in. (100 to 650 mm). All units operate by transmitting a modulating frequency square-wave to the moving water stream inside pipes. Controlled by precisely designed integrated circuitry, these complex waveforms cause calcium and magnesium carbonates to lose their adhesive, limescale-forming properties. As a result, new scale does not form and existing scale wears away.