Process application thermocouples can be protected from hostile environments using thermowells and protection tubes constructed of stainless steel, nickel alloys, and silicon carbide. Various terminal housings can be used to comply with NEMA standards, including explosion-proof designs. Head-mounted transmitters are available for 4 to 20 mA signal conversion, and temperature tolerances are standard or special limits-of-error. The thermoelement design can either be single or duplex for multiple outputs from the same point. Elements can be manufactured as large as 8 gauge (0.128 in., 3 mm, OD) on each leg for long service life.