- Ceramics & Refractories/Insulation
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- Heat Treating
- Heat & Corrosion Resistant Materials/Composites
- Induction Heat Treating
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- Sintering/Powder Metallurgy
- Vacuum/Surface Treatments
Formally, oxidation occurs when the metal in questions loses one or more of its electrons so that the atoms of the metal go from the neutral state to one of a positively charge ion, resulting in the formation of a metal oxide (in the case of iron, rust). There are three basic oxides of iron:
1.) FeO (wüstite)
2.) Fe3O4 (magnetite)
3.) Fe2O3 (hematite)
Thin oxide layers (under approximately 3000 Å) are referred to as films or film layers. Thicker oxide layers (above 3000 Å) are considered scales (note: 1.0 Å = 10-10 m). An oxide film does not form if the partial pressure of oxygen is higher than the oxide’s dissociation pressure for a given metal.
The oxide type, or phase, that forms as well as the oxide thickness is a function of temperature and oxygen concentration (Fig. 1). The scale formed may be categorized as either protective scale or non-protective scale.
- Protective scale prevents access of oxygen to the metal surface due to non-porous continuous structure of the oxide layer.
- Non-protective scale has loose porous structure, providing free access of oxygen to the underlying metal.
Oxides with volume much greater (twice and more) than the volume of metal from which the oxide was formed cause developing compressive stresses. These stresses may lead to cracking and spalling of the scale, which results in faster penetration of oxygen to the metal surface and possible in-service issues.
It is interesting to note that these oxides form in successive layers, first wüstite (nearest the metal surface) then magnetite and finally hematite (in contact with the atmosphere). At tempering temperatures below 566ºC (1050ºF), only magnetite and hematite form, but all three can may form at higher temperatures.