Residual stress and deformation that develop during heat treatment of steel parts can be determined quantitatively using numerical simulation.
The ability of a component to handle higher load strains can be accomplished by heat treating surface layers to improve mechanical properties. Compressive residual stress in the surface layer contributes to increased durability (higher fatigue limit) by reducing crack growth velocity and by its influence on the mean stress. In the case of a crankshaft, induction surface layer hardening produces high hardness at the bearing surface for improved wear resistance, high toughness in the center and compressive residual stress in the surface layer for a higher fatigue limit. Methods are needed to describe this stress state.